Friday, March 13, 2020
Biography of The Pitsburgh Steelers Free Online Research Papers The Pittsburgh Steelers are a professional American football team based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. They are currently a member of the North Division of the American Football Conference (AFC) in the National Football League. Founded in 1933, the Steelers are the oldest franchise in the AFC. Pittsburgh has won more Super Bowl titles (six), won more AFC Championship Games (seven) and hosted more conference championship games (ten) than any other AFC or NFC team. They have played in more AFC conference championship games than any other team and are tied with the Dallas Cowboys with 14 championship game appearances in either the NFC or AFC contests. With the exception of the 1960s which featured only three Super Bowls, the Steelers have appeared in at least one Super Bowl in every decade of the contest. The Steelers won their most recent championship, Super Bowl XLIII, on February 1, 2009. The fifth-oldest franchise in the NFL, the Steelers were founded as the Pittsburgh Pirates on July 8, 1933, by Art Rooney, taking its original name from the National League baseball team of the same name, as was common practice for NFL teams to do at the time. The ownership of the Steelers has remained within the Rooney family since its founding. The current owner is Arts son, Dan Rooney, who has given much control of the franchise to his son Art Rooney II. The team enjoys a large, widespread fanbase nicknamed Steeler Nation and currently play their home games in Heinz Field on Pittsburghs North Side, which also hosts the University of Pittsburgh Panthers. Built in 2001, the stadium replaced Three Rivers Stadium which hosted the Steelers for 31 seasons. Prior to Three Rivers, the Steelers had played their games in Pitt Stadium and Forbes Field. Franchise history The Pittsburgh Steelers of the NFL first took to the field as the Pittsburgh Pirates on September 20, 1933, losing 23Ã¢â¬â2 to the New York Giants. Through the 1930s, the Pirates never finished higher than second place in their division, or with a record better than .500 (1936).[ Pittsburgh did make history in 1938 by signing Byron White, a future Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, to what was at the time the biggest contract in NFL history, but he played only one year with the Pirates before signing with the Detroit Lions. Prior to the 1940 season, the Pirates renamed themselves the Steelers. During World War II, the Steelers experienced player shortages. They twice merged with other NFL franchises to field a team. During the 1943 season, they merged with the Philadelphia Eagles forming the Phil-Pitt Eagles and were known as the Steagles. This team went 5Ã¢â¬â4Ã¢â¬â1. In 1944, they merged with the Chicago Cardinals and were known as Card-Pitt (or, mockingly, as the Carpets). This team finished 0Ã¢â¬â10, marking the only winless team in franchise history. The Steelers made the playoffs for the first time in 1947, sharing first place in the division at 8Ã¢â¬â4 with the Philadelphia Eagles. This forced a tie-breaking playoff game at Forbes Field, which the Steelers lost 21Ã¢â¬â0. That would be Pittsburghs only playoff game for 25 years, though the Steelers did qualify for a Playoff Bowl in 1963 as the second-best team in their conference, though not considered an official playoff. In 1970, the year they moved into Three Rivers Stadium and the year of the AFL-NFL merger, the Pittsburgh Steelers were one of three old-guard NFL teams to switch to the newly-formed American Football Conference (the others being the Cleveland Browns and the Baltimore Colts), in order to equalize the number of teams in the two conferences of the newly-merged league. Logo and uniforms The Steelers have used black and gold as their colors since the clubs inception, the lone exception being the 1943 season when they merged with the Philadelphia Eagles and formed the Steagles; the teams colors at that time were green and white as a result of wearing Eagles uniforms. Originally, the team wore solid gold-colored helmets and black jerseys. Unique to Pittsburgh, the Steelers black and gold colors are now shared by all major professional teams in the city, including the Pittsburgh Pirates in baseball and the Pittsburgh Penguins in hockey. However, the Penguins use Vegas Gold, a color similar to metallic gold, and the Pirates gold is a darker mustard yellow-gold, while the Steelers gold is more of a bright canary yellow. Black and gold are also the colors of the citys official flag. (1963Ã¢â¬âPresent) The Steelers logo was introduced in 1962 and is based on the Steelmark, originally designed by Pittsburghs U.S. Steel and now owned by the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI). In fact, it was Cleveland-based Republic Steel that suggested the Steelers adopt the industry logo. It consists of the word Steelers surrounded by three astroids (hypocycloids of four cusps). The original meanings behind the astroids were, Steel lightens your work, brightens your leisure, and widens your world. Later, the colors came to represent the ingredients used in the steel-making process: yellow for coal, red for iron ore, and blue for scrap steel. While the formal Steelmark logo contains only the word Steel, the team was given permission to add ers in 1963 after a petition to AISI. The Steelers are the only NFL team that puts its logo on only one side of the helmet (the right side). Longtime field and equipment manager Jack Hart was instructed to do this by Art Rooney as a test to see how the logo appeared on the gold helmets; however, its popularity led the team to leave it that way permanently. A year after introducing the logo, they switched to black helmets to make it stand out more. The current uniform designs were introduced in 1968. The design consists of gold pants and either black jerseys or white jerseys, except for the 1970 and 1971seasons when the Steelers wore white pants with their white jerseys. In 1997, the team switched to rounded numbers on the jersey to match the number font (Futura Condensed) on the helmets, and a Steelers logo was added to the left side of the jersey. The current third uniform, consisting of a black jersey with gold lettering, white pants with black and gold stripes, and a gold helmet were first used during the Steelers 75th anniversary season in 2007. They were meant to evoke the memory of the 1963Ã¢â¬â1964 era uniforms. The uniforms were so popular among fans that the Steeler organization decided to keep them and use them as a third option during home games only. In 2008Ã¢â¬â2009, the Steelers became the first team in NFL history to defeat an opponent three times in a single season using three different uniforms. They defeated the Baltimore Ravens in Pittsburgh in Week 4 in their third jerseys, again Week 15 in Baltimore in their road whites, and a final time in the AFC Championship in Pittsburgh in their home black jerseys. Rivals The Pittsburgh Steelers have three primary rivals, all within their division: (Cleveland Browns, Baltimore Ravens, and Cincinnati Bengals). They also have rivalries with other teams that arose from post-season battles in the past, most notably the New England Patriots, Oakland Raiders, Tennessee Titans and Dallas Cowboys. They also have an intrastate rivalry with the Philadelphia Eagles, but under the current scheduling rules the teams only play each other once every four years. Divisional rivals 1.The Cleveland Browns and the Steelers have been divisional rivals since the two cities teams began playing against each other in 1950. After posting a 9Ã¢â¬â31 record in first 40 games of the series between the two cities, the Steelers recently took over the all-time series lead for the first time ever (60Ã¢â¬â56); partly due to their dominance over the post-1999, Cleveland Browns (or New Browns) franchise and won the last twelve straight before the Browns snapped their losing skid against them by beating them 13Ã¢â¬â6 on December 10, 2009. Additionally, the Browns lost 16 straight years in Pittsburgh from 1970Ã¢â¬â1985 and posted an abysmal 5Ã¢â¬â24 record at Three Rivers Stadium overall. Former Steelers head coach Bill Cowher coached the Browns special teams and secondary before following Marty Schottenheimer for a brief tenure as Kansas City Defensive Coordinator, and then hired by Pittsburgh. This has only intensified the rivalry. 2.The Baltimore Ravens and the Steelers have had several memorable match-ups and have a bitter divisional rivalry. Both teams handed the other their first losses at their current home fields. The Steelers won the inaugural game played at Baltimores MT Bank Stadium in 1998, 20Ã¢â¬â13, and three years later the Ravens handed the Steelers their first-ever loss at Heinz Field, 13Ã¢â¬â10. Later that season (2001) Pittsburgh won a divisional playoff game 27Ã¢â¬â10 against Baltimore, who was the defending Super Bowl champion. During their NFL championship season in 2000, the Ravens defeated the Steelers in Pittsburgh, 16Ã¢â¬â0, in the season opener with the Steelers later exacting revenge, 9Ã¢â¬â6, in Baltimore (the Ravens final loss of the season). During the Steelers 2008 Championship run, they beat the Ravens three times, including a win in the AFC Championship game. The Steelers lead the series (begun in 1996), 16Ã¢â¬â10. The two teams complement each other by consiste ntly fielding strong defenses in their division. The Steelers-Ravens Rivalry really began when Art Modell moved the his Franchise from Cleveland to Baltimore. The Steelers saw the Ravens as Modells team, which was reason enough to want to beat them. The Steelers also looked at Modells move of his franchise from Cleveland to Baltimore as taking away the Steelers longest and deepest rivalry away. 3.The Cincinnati Bengals rivalry with Pittsburgh dates from the 1970 season, when the NFL-AFL merger was completed. In 1976, the Steelers kept their playoff hopes alive (they later won the division) with a late-season 7Ã¢â¬â3 win in snowy Cincinnati. One of the most memorable games was the 2005 AFC Wildcard playoff game, in which the Steelers, en route to a Super Bowl title, won a 31Ã¢â¬â17 come-from-behind victory after Bengals QB Carson Palmer was forced to leave the game with a knee injury. The knee injury happened when nose tackle Kimo von Oelhoffen fell forward into Palmers knee. The Bengals players called this a dirty play, the NFL ruled that it was accidental and did not fine von Oelhoffen for the hit. This incident has led to an intensifying of the rivalry since this game. The Bengals beat the Steelers in week 13 of the 2005 season 38Ã¢â¬â31, and wide receiver T.J. Houshmandzadeh used a Terrible Towel to polish his cleats while walking up the tunnel after the game, f ueling the rivalry. The Steelers and Bengals finished 2005 and 2006 with identical records (11Ã¢â¬â5 and 8Ã¢â¬â8 respectively), splitting both regular-season series, the Bengals winning the tiebreaker both years due to having a superior division record. The Steelers also are responsible for ending the Bengals season in Cincinnati two years in a row, eliminating them from the playoffs in 2005 and taking them out of contention in 2006. The Steelers lead the all-time series, 47Ã¢â¬â30. Stadiums In 2001 the Steelers moved into Heinz Field as their football-only state-of-the-art stadium. But the franchise dating back to 1933 has had several homes. For thirty-one seasons the Steelers shared Forbes Field with the Pittsburgh Pirates from 1933 to 1963. In 1958 though they started splitting their home games with the football only Pitt Stadium three blocks away at the University of Pittsburgh. From 1964 to 1969 the Steelers played exclusively at the on campus facility before moving with the Pirates to Three Rivers Stadium on the citys Northside. Three Rivers is remembered fondly by the Steeler Nation as where Chuck Noll and Dan Rooney turned the franchise into a powerhouse, winning four Super Bowls in just six seasons and making the playoffs 11 times in 13 seasons from 1972 to 1984, the AFC title game seven times. Since 2001 however a new generation of Steeler greats has made Heinz Field legendary with multiple AFC Championship Games being hosted and two Super Bowl championships. Current roster Pittsburgh Steelers roster view talk edit Quarterbacks 16 Charlie Batch 2 Dennis Dixon 7 Ben Roethlisberger Running Backs 49 Sean McHugh FB/TE 34 Rashard Mendenhall 21 Mewelde Moore 33 Isaac Redman 44 Frank Summers FB 28 Justin Vincent Wide Receivers 81 Arnaz Battle 13 Jason Chery 19 Tyler Grisham 11 Stefan Logan 15 Brandon London 82 Antwaan Randle El 14 Limas Sweed 17 Mike Wallace 86 Hines Ward Tight Ends 87 Eugene Bright 85 David Johnson 83 Heath Miller Offensive Linemen 79 Trai Essex G 73 Ramon Foster G/T 62 Justin Hartwig C 66 Tony Hills T 68 Chris Kemoeatu G 64 Doug Legursky C 67 Jonathan Scott T 78 Max Starks T 65 Kraig Urbik G Defensive Linemen 93 Nick Eason DE 98 Casey Hampton NT 77 RaShon Harris DE 76 Chris Hoke NT 96 Ziggy Hood DE 99 Brett Keisel DE 69 Steve McLendon DE 71 Scott Paxson NT 91 Aaron Smith DE Linebackers 55 Patrick Bailey OLB 45 Derrick Doggett ILB 51 James Farrior ILB 50 Larry Foote ILB 57 Keyaron Fox ILB 54 Andre Frazier OLB 92 James Harrison OLB 94 Lawrence Timmons ILB 53 Johnny Williams ILB 48 Renauld Williams ILB 56 LaMarr Woodley OLB Defensive Backs 40 Will Allen FS 27 Joe Burnett CB 25 Ryan Clark FS 31 Tuff Harris SS 20 Keenan Lewis CB 37 Anthony Madison CB 29 Ryan Mundy FS 30 David Pittman CB 43 Troy Polamalu SS 24 Ike Taylor CB 35 Trae Williams CB Special Teams 5 Piotr Czech K 8 Adam Graessle P 3 Jeff Reed K 61 Jared Retkofsky LS 60 Greg Warren LS Reserve Lists Currently vacant Restricted FAs 74 Willie Colon OT 22 William Gay CB 9 Daniel Sepulveda P 89 Matt Spaeth TE Rookies in italics Roster updated April 13, 2010 Depth Chart Transactions 66 Active, 0 Inactive, 4 FAs ? More rosters Steeler Nation Steeler Nation is the unofficial name of the fan base of the NFLs Pittsburgh Steelers, coined by NFL Films narrator John Facenda in Blueprint for Victory, the teams 1975 highlights film. Steeler Country is often used for the Pittsburgh area where the fan base originates or for areas with a large Steelers fan base. History Early years The Steelers have had a following in Western Pennsylvania since Art Rooney bought the team with $2,500 of his own money, and not, as myth would have it, from his winnings as a horse race handicapper. That year, Pennsylvania relaxed its blue laws allowing sporting events in the commonwealth on Sundays, paving the way for the Steelers and the Philadelphia Eagles to begin play for the 1933 NFL season. Previously, the state had teams in Pottsville and Frankford, but both had already folded, due to both the Great Depression and their inability to play on Sunday, when most NFL games took place. Much like the league itself in the early years, the Steelers had to compete with baseball and college football teams in the city, making the team third in the hierarchy to the Pirates and the Pitt Panthers. Despite the teams early struggles, it had a small but loyal fan base in the city due to the popularity of American football at all levels, dating back to the 1800s, when Pittsburgh hosted the first wholly professional football game in 1895. Rise of the Steelers By the 1950s, the Steelers had gained some popularity in the city and were on par with Pitt, but they were still a distant second behind the Pirates in the city. In the early 1970s, the Steelers began to rise in popularity, due to changes made by the team in 1969 that saw the hiring of head coach Chuck Noll and the drafting of future Hall of Fame defensive tackle Mean Joe Greene. By 1972, the Steelers were a playoff contender and began a sellout streak in Three Rivers Stadium that carried over to Heinz Field and still stands to this day. The team is second to the Washington Redskins for the longest active consecutive sellout streak in league history. The teams four Super Bowl victories in the 1970s coincided with the a recession that struck the United States, and the city in particular, that would lead to the closure of several steel mills in the early 1980s. The teams success was credited with giving people in the city hope and leading to the increased fan base. Due to economic uncertainty in the area, many Steelers fans relocated to other areas but retained their identification with the Steelers as a reflection of their former hometowns steel industrial base. During the lead up to Super Bowl XIII between the Steelers and the Dallas Cowboys, Phil Musick contrasted the Dallas and Pittsburgh fans by saying that Dallas is superfan Whistling Ray and a hat that sprays the unsuspecting with water; Pittsburgh is a guy in a gorilla suit wholl stove five of your ribs if you laugh at him. Player fan clubs In the 1970s many fans organized fan clubs for their favorite players. Some of these fan clubs included Francos Italian Army, Frenchys Foreign Legion, Gerelas Gorillas, Bradshaws Brigade, Lamberts Lunatics, Dobre Shunka (Good Ham, for Jack Ham),Rocky and the Flying Squirrels, Shells Bombers, and Russells Raiders among others. Today Since the 1970s, the Steelers have enjoyed a large fan base and have eclipsed the Pittsburgh Pirates as the most popular sports team in Pittsburgh. While the teams success gained it a large fan base nationally, many consider the collapse of the citys steel industry to have been a cause for the strong fan base in other cities, demonstrated when teams whose home turnout would otherwise require a local blackout on television end up selling out when hosting the Steelers. The Cincinnati Bengals are perhaps the best example of this, as throughout the 1990s, the team usually only sold out home games when playing against the Steelers. Another instance of the teams large fan base was at Super Bowl XL, where an ESPN.com columnist suggested that Steelers fans outnumbered Seattle Seahawks fans more than 25 to 1. In November 2007, a study by Turnkey Sports found that the Steelers brand was the strongest in its local market of any team in the NHL, NBA, MLB or NFL. Another study found that the percentage of female fans in the Pittsburgh market was more than double the average. Comparison to other NFL fans Attempts at quantifying the loyalty of Steeler Nation relative to other NFL fan bases have shown mixed results. A 2006 study by the American City Business Journals placed the teams fans 21st out of 32 teams in the league, behind all three of its division rivals in the AFC North. The study found that although the team had been selling out games for years, some fans were not actually attending the games, and Pittsburghs weekly turnout percentage for home games was 16th in the league. That ranking was down seven slots from the publications survey conducted in 1997, which ranked Steeler Nation 14th out of 30 teams, partly due to fans leaving nearly 10 percent of the seats in the stadium empty. Conversely, A 2008 study from Forbes.com ranked Pittsburgh fans 8th overall, citing amongst other things a long season-ticket waiting list. A 2008 article for ESPN.com ranked Steelers fans as the best in the NFL, citing their unbelievable sellout streak of 299 consecutive games. Criticism Like other large and vocal fan bases, such as the Cleveland Browns Dawg Pound or fans of the New York Yankees, Steeler Nation has at times been presented in an unflattering light, especially by fans of other teams. They have occasionally been described in unflattering terms by sports journalists in other cities. For example, prior to Super Bowl XLIII, the Phoenix New Times warned fans of the Arizona Cardinals that Steelers fans were the grubbiest, loudest, and nastiest fan base in all of sports - as well as one of the largest and being the only NFL team based in Appalachia, that they were white trash and hillbillies. Steelers fans have also been singled out by newspapers in rival cities for inappropriate behavior during games - a common problem in the NFL AntiÃ¢â¬âSteeler Nation sentiment has grown strong enough that in some cases, front offices for other teams have taken steps to keep Pittsburgh fans out of games in their cities. Instead of being permitted to buy tickets to a Chargers-Steelers game in San Diego, for instance, they were required to pay for tickets to two other games, as well. In other cases, teams refused to sell tickets to fans calling from Pittsburghs 412 area code, and they encouraged fans who were selling their own tickets to do the same. Steelers President Art Rooney II complained to the NFL about the situation, but his grievance was not well received. Famous fans One notable members of Steeler Nation include President Barack Obama, rapper Snoop Dogg, actors Burt Reynolds and Michael Keaton, former MLB pitcher Curt Schilling, former CIA Director Michael Hayden, talk show host Rush Limbaugh, Bishop Thomas J. Tobin of the Diocese of Providence, Rhode Island, country music legend Hank Williams, Jr., author John Grisham, actor Verne Troyer, musician Bret Michaels, and PGA Tour golfer Jim Furyk. Research Papers on Biography of The Pitsburgh SteelersThe Hockey GameAppeasement Policy Towards the Outbreak of World War 2The Spring and AutumnResearch Process Part OneHip-Hop is ArtThe Project Managment Office SystemMarketing of Lifeboy Soap A Unilever ProductAssess the importance of Nationalism 1815-1850 EuropeThe Effects of Illegal ImmigrationTwilight of the UAW
Tuesday, February 25, 2020
To what extent is it possible you justify any type of censorship in the creative media world within democracy - Essay Example According to Kieran (1997), censorship is the limitation of expression for the sole intention of shielding people from themselves by selectively limiting access to a variety of ideas deemed to be harmful by some authority. Such ideas are perceived harmful, objectionable, or sensitive. Censorship is common in any country Ã¢â¬â authoritarian, democratic, dictatorial or otherwise. Though political diversity has brought about some freedom, censorship, especially in the creative media is still prevalent in nearly all the countries of the world. The justification of censorship in the creative media is a subject of debate. Some countries, especially the undemocratic countries, are often high-handed in implementing censorship in the creative media to an extent of crushing some basic individual rights. This shall be discussed elsewhere in this essay, but first lets start with the justification debate. First, according to Kieran (1997), censorship in the creative media is a necessity to manage the spectrum of thought, and prevent any kind of dissent against the practice. Some programs may be fit to be viewed by adults, but have long-term negative effects on juniors. In such an instance, censorship of such materials would do more good than harm, thus justifying its practice. In democratic institutions, civil liberties must be rooted in the freedom of speech and expression. Infact, one of the essential foundation stones of a democratic society is freedom of expression. The freedom of information and expression must be entrenched and guaranteed in the constitution. In a democratic society, the media must be let free to publish, and the public must be let free to receive the information and the opinions. This is an individual entitlement. In essence, for individuals to be autonomous and have a sense of self-fulfillment, they must be free to receive and impart ideas and information. Freedom of expression is also beneficial in society in that it promotes debate,
Sunday, February 9, 2020
Environmental Management . response 1 - Essay Example Barrier effect restricts species exchange thereby threatening their survival. Roads increase extinction rates of species since restricted movement causes inbreeding depression, which can wipe an entire species (Underhill, 2002). These assertions are true since presence of a road in a wildlife habitat causes disturbance or affects migration routes and even destroys homes of the species. Moreover, the author asserts that, in some instances, fragmentation caused by road can be beneficial to the animal population since it can help the species to re-colonize new areas. However, I partially agree with this notion since it occurs rarely and depends on the extent or coverage of the roads. Further, the author argues that the presence of a road in wildlife habitat increases chances or prevalence of animals being involved in fatalities or accidents (Underhill, 2002). This assertion is true since when animals cross the road, there are high chances of being knocked over by vehicles and this can result in death or injuries to the affected animal. The author proposes that in order to curb roadway fatalities, as well as minimizing population fragmentation, there is a need to devise a system whereby wildlife can move freely to each side of the road without any problem (Underhill, 2002). This can be achieved through construction of underground tunnels during building of new roads. I believe this is a noble idea and should be implemented without considering the expenses or costs to be incurred. This is because wildlife is of higher value compared to the cost of resources to be used in constructing the underground tunnels. Therefore, it is logical to spend many resources in conserving and protecting wildlife than save the resources and later experience species loss and extinction, which is more
Thursday, January 30, 2020
American rangelands and forests Essay Part 1 Choose either a rangeland or a forest of the United States and describe current federal management strategies. Explain federal efforts to manage these lands sustainably by completing the chart below. Rangeland or Forest Location Brief History of Rangeland or Forest What are current land management problems? What are the current federal land management strategies that address these problems? What is one sustainable effort that should be implemented? American Rangeland or Forest: San Bernardino National Forest San Bernardino Forest The San Bernardino Forest was born in 1907 after the forest reserve act was passed in 1891. The forest has a history of mining and prospecting in the past. The roads during the winter. Trees are dying off at a fast rate causing a high chance for forest fires. Insects are damaging the trees at a fast rate. The Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) program is trying to stop the damage that burnt areas causing. The run off hurts fish, wildlife, and many other things that are important. Ecological Restoration plan. It will take over stewardship of the land for the next 15 to 20 years. They need to sell some of the land for mining as it has a history of mining and prospecting in the past. Part 2 Take your information from Part 1 and use it to create a Sustainability Plan. Your sustainability plan should present what, when, and how something is to be sustained and maintained now and into the indefinite future. Your plan can be submitted in a narrative or table format. The Corporation forÃ National and Community Service (n.d.) provides the following list of components that make up a sustainability plan that should be included in your paper or table: 1. Action items: Provide the items or activities that need to be addressed or that need to occur. Refer to the following example: My plan for sustaining clean air in my community is to develop an education program about air pollution-generating activities and their effects, schedule a presentation day and time, invite community participants, and research the effects of air pollution. 2. Order of action items: Discuss how the action items in Step 1 will align or occur. One event or activity should occur before another; thus, order the items into steps similar to the following: 1) Research the effects of air pollution. 2) Develop an education program. 3) Schedule a presentation day and time. 4) Invite the community. 3. Action steps: Explain how you are going to conduct the action items. How are you going to make each item or activity happen? Include individuals or groups who will help you conduct these activities. Use the following as a guide: In order to schedule a presentation day and time, I will attend next monthÃ¢â¬â¢s community homeownerÃ¢â¬â¢s association (HOA) meeting and request permission from the board to add it to the following monthÃ¢â¬â¢s agenda. 4. Timeline: Estimate when you are going to conduct the action items, such as Ã¢â¬Å"In months 1Ã¢â¬â3, I will complete the research.Ã¢â¬ If an item or activity does not have a specific conclusion time, indicate that it is ongoing. The following is a sample of how you might incorporate your sustainability plan into a table formatÃ¢â¬âkeep in mind this is an incomplete plan: Action Items (in the correct order) Action Steps Action Steps Research and identify the effects of air pollution. Review environmental websites and journals. Document the sources of air pollution and both environmental and health effects of air pollution. Document video interviews of environmental researchers and facilitators. Month 1Ã¢â¬â3 Develop an education program about air pollution effects. Develop a presentation about why this program is needed and include air pollutionÃ¢â¬â¢s ill effects, the lifestyle changes that will be required, and the benefits and challenges of change. Month 1Ã¢â¬â3 Schedule a presentation day and time. Attend a monthly HOA meeting to present the benefits of the program. Request that the HOA board add the presentation to the following monthÃ¢â¬â¢s agenda. Document the audio and visual equipment needed for presentation and layout of the room. Month 4 Identify and invite community participants. Tally the number of homes in the community. Create and distribute flyers to homes announcing the next HOA meeting and the educational program that will be introduced. Month 4Ã¢â¬â5 Blank Sample Action Plan Action Items (in order) Action Steps Timeline Anybody who wants to join groups that wants to save the San Bernardino Forest. We will talk about information on saving the forest; newsletters, and other ways of keeping people informed. We need to set regulations and rules to help preserve the forest. We have many laws and Government groups (Baer) that need our help and support. I feel that education will be the most important tool. People always want to get involved we just have to give them a chance. If they know what to do if something is wrong it could save the forest. 1 Ã¢â¬â 5 months Education will be the most important for everybody that works or visits the forest. If we want to keep the forest in good condition we have to educate all people that work and visit the park what causes damage and how to keep the forest safe. If people know how to save the forest they will. We need to make sure all laws are posted up all over. We need to make sure that people know the benefits of keeping the forest in good condition. 6 Ã¢â¬â 9 months How to preserve the forest. We need to inform all entering the San Bernardino forest why it is important to protect the forest. The forest is very important to way of life and the future of our kids. It will help with air quality and the clean water. We need to cover fire safety. 1 year How to take action We need to take action and make sure we implement Government plans and the plans as a group that we came up with. We need to take care of the insect problem with safe pesticides that donÃ¢â¬â¢t hurt the wildlife and fish. The future Be a good steward Follow up on all the plans and make sure we take the lead as a group. We need to see if the plans we made are making a difference and cleaning up the burnt trees and the insect problem. Follow up References www.fs.usda.gov/sbnf/ Corporation for National Community Service. (n.d.). Sample sustainability plan. In Toolkit for program sustainability, capacity building, and volunteer recruitment/management (Section 4). Retrieved from http://www.nationalserviceresources.org/filemanager/download/online/sustainability_plan.pdf.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Salinger, J(erome) D(avid) (1919- ), American novelist and short story writer, known for his stories dealing with the intellectual and emotional struggles of adolescents who are alienated from the empty, materialistic world of their parents. Salinger's work is marked by a profound sense of craftsmanship, a keen ear for dialogue, and a deep awareness of the frustrations of life in America after World War II (1939-1945). Jerome David Salinger was born and raised in New York City. He began writing fiction as a teenager. After graduating from the Valley Forge Military Academy in 1936, he began studies at several colleges in the New York City area, but he took no degree. He did, however, take a fiction writing class with Whit Burnett, an editor of Story magazine, who encouraged Salinger and brought out his first published story, "The Young Folks" (1940). Over the next several years Salinger contributed short stories to popular magazines such as Collier's, Esquire, and The Saturday Evening Post, continuing to produce work even while serving in combat during World War II as a staff sergeant in the United States Army from 1942 to 1946. After returning to civilian life, Salinger continued to achieve success with his short stories, many of which were drawn from his war experiences. During the late 1940s he published work in Mademoiselle, Cosmopolitan, and The New Yorker. At the age of 31, Salinger gained a major place in American fiction with the publication of his only...
Monday, January 13, 2020
International companies or marketers may choose between two alternative approaches in developing its marketing strategies or marketing mix. These two approaches are: a. Global Marketing Strategy Ã¢â¬â defines a standard marketing mix and implements it with minimal modifications in all of its domestic and foreign markets. This standard approach saves money because it allows large-scale production runs and reinforces the brandÃ¢â¬â¢s image. It can foster collaborative innovation. Through global marketing strategy, Global firms can effectively market some goods and services to segments in many nations that share cultures and languages. This approach works best for products with strong, universal appeal such as McDonalds and for luxury products that target upscale consumers everywhere. b. Multidomestic Marketing Strategy- assumes the differences between market characteristics and competitive situations in certain nations require firms to customize their marketing decisions to effectively reach individual marketplaces. In other words, it is an application of market segmentation to foreign markets by tailoring the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing mix to match specific target markets in each nation. Keegan has distinguished five adaptation strategies of product and promotion to a foreign market (see figure below). 1. Global Product Strategies a. Straight Extension Ã¢â¬â introducing the product in the foreign market without any changes. This strategy permits economies of scale in production and marketing, for it involves no additional R&D expense, manufacturing retooling, or promotional modification. Once implemented successfully, it cerates universal recognition of a product for consumers from country to country. b. Product Adaptation- involves altering the product to meet local conditions or preferences. There are several level of adapatations, it could be regional version, country version, city version and retailer version. c. Product Invention- consists of creating something new. It can take two forms, Backward invention and Forward invention. It is a costly strategy but the payoffs can be great. i. Backward Invention Ã¢â¬â is reintroducing esrlier product forms that are well adapted to a foreign countryÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. ii. Forward Invention- is creating a new product to meet a need in another country. 2. Global Promotion Strategies d. Communication Adaptation Ã¢â¬â is the process in which a company run the same advertising and promotion campaigns used in the home market or change them for each local market. e. Dual Adaptation- is the process in which both the product and communication are being changed for each market/country. 3. Global Pricing Strategies Global Firms faces several pricing problems when selling abroad, they must deal with price escalation, transfer prices, dumping charges, and gray markets. f. Price Escalation- needs to adjust the marginal cost depending on the added costs including the currency-fluctustions risks to the productÃ¢â¬â¢s factory price inorder to attain the same profit locally. Because the price escalation varies from country to country, the question is how to sell the prices in different countries. Companies have three choices: iii. Setting uniform price everywhere iv. Setting a market-based price in each country v. Setting a cost-based price in each country g. Transfer Price- different prices that is being charged to its subsidiary in different countries/market h. Dumping Ã¢â¬â it occurs when a company charges either less than its costs or less than it charges in its home market, inorder to enter or win a market. i. ArmÃ¢â¬â¢s-lenght price Ã¢â¬â the rpice charged by other competitors for the same or a similar product j. Gray market Ã¢â¬â it occurs when the same product sells at different prices geographically. 4. Global Place (Distribution Channels) Strategies Many companies/manufactuers think their job is done oncethe product leaves the factory, however they should pay attention to how the product moves within the foreign country. They should take a whole-channel view of the problem of distributin products to final users. k. SellerÃ¢â¬â¢s international marketing headquarters- the export department or international division makes decisions on channels and other marketing mix- elements l. ChannelÃ¢â¬â¢s between nation- gets the products to the borders of the foreign nation. The decision that is made on this link includes the types of intermediaries, type of tranportation, and financing and risk arrangements. m. ChannelÃ¢â¬â¢s within foreign nations- gets the products from their entry point to final buyers and users. II. Deciding on the Marketing Organizations Companies manage their international marketing activities in three ways: through export departments, international divisions, or global organization. a. Export Department b. International Division i. Geographical Organization-each with vice presidents per region and each regional vice presidents has country managers who are responsible for a sales force, sales branches, distributors, and licensees in their respective country. ii. World Product Group-each with an international vice president responsible for worldwide sales of each product group iii. International Subsidiaries- each headed by a president c. Global Organization Several firms have become truly global organizations, these companies however faces several organizational complexities thus Bartlett and Ghoshal have proposed circumstances under which different approaches work best. They describe forces that favor Ã¢â¬Ëglobal integrationÃ¢â¬â¢ versus Ã¢â¬Ënational responsivenessÃ¢â¬â¢. They distinguish three organizational strategies: d. A gloabl strategy treats the world as single market. e. A multinational strategy treats the world as a portfolio of national opportunities. f. A Ã¢â¬Å"glocalÃ¢â¬ strategy standardizes certain core elemetns and localizes oter elemets.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Are there any notable differences between texts written by men and women? Before the twentieth century this question, even if it was asked, had to remain without an answer, for the existing methodology and computational capacities were inadequate for the solution of this problem. The reason is, apparently these difference do exist Ã¢â¬â but they are too subtle to be noticed with the naked eye and lie where one hardly expects to find them. Nevertheless, with the correct approach these differences are characteristic enough to allow one to define the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s gender with a striking accuracy Ã¢â¬â according to the work Automatically Categorizing Written Texts by Author Gender by Moshe Koppel et al, one of the sorting algorithms used for this purpose automatically determines the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s gender with up to 80 percent accuracy. Seeing that this problem can be solved by means of automatic sorting, it becomes clear that the difference between male and female writing isnÃ¢â¬â¢t abstract and qualitative but, on the contrary, concrete and quantitative. In other words, it is the frequency with which certain language elements are used that is the most helpful in distinguishing between male and female writing. On the whole, there are about 50 markers that are useful in defining the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s gender, with some of them more important and some less. The most notable female marker is the abundance of pronouns (I, you, she, yourself, herself), while the most characteristic male markers are large numbers of determiners (a, the, that, these), quantifiers (one, two, three, some) and cardinal numbers. Of course it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean that one can define with complete certainty whether the textÃ¢â¬â¢s author is male or female by counting the markers and comparing the results with median frequencies Ã¢â¬â but it is not that far from the truth. For example, if frequency of occurrence of the is low enough and of she is high enough, the text in question is almost guaranteed to have been written by a woman. And with enough work the algorithm can most likely be perfected to include more markers and become even more precise. What these differences mean, however, is another matter entirely; and, as this topic is much more open to speculation than the cold facts, there are numerous theories explaining the matter. One of them, for example, states that female writing is more Ã¢â¬ËinvolvedÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â that is, it shows greater degree of interaction between the writer and the reader/listener, which is mainly expressed in the amount of pronouns used. Meanwhile, male writing is more Ã¢â¬ËinformationalÃ¢â¬â¢, which is expressed via the abundance of determiners. It is hard to say how close this explanation is to truth Ã¢â¬â there is obviously not enough practical and theoretical work done on the subject to make statements with any degree of certainty. One thing, however, is quite clear Ã¢â¬â yes, there is a difference between male and female writing. For better or for worse, however, this difference is too vague for us to understand in what way it is meaningful Ã¢â¬â at least for now.